This is the trailer for the video record of the Living Economies Expo, from April 2017. Individual recordings of most of the talks will be through the post-production process soon, so those who were unable to attend can still receive the content.
Many are asking if we have to sit around waiting for the current system to collapse. If we have only 3 years to turn around the emissions pattern as the UN has said, we had better get on with designing the next system.
The current system assumes:
- There will be only one currency for a country.
- The majority of the country’s money will be created and controlled by private banks.
- The money will be created as interest-bearing debt.
- All land, all natural resources and natural monopolies can be privately owned, and this means people can profit from buying and selling it.
- All major decisions will be made by national or international governments or agencies.
This all adds up to a system with a growth imperative built in.(For years I thought it was just the money system but I believe now after a conversation with Steve Keen it is a combination of that and the land tenure system) The consequences are regular booms and busts, regular monetary crises, banking crises and sovereign debt crises and ever widening wealth inequality.
The growth imperative also means that it is inevitable that we consume our natural and social capital. Perpetual growth is not natural. There is no entity in nature which is designed to grow forever, unless, as Margrit Kennedy pointed out, you count cancer. And now we are paying for our blindness with floods, droughts, coastal erosion and food shortages.
Therefore the phrases ‘doughnut economy’, ‘stable state economy’, ‘no-growth economy’, ‘regenerative or resilient economy’ are good descriptive words, but they don’t change the current economy’s DNA. We have been inventing more and more names for this since the publication of The Limits to Growth and arrival of the NZ Values Party in the seventies. They all sound good but we can’t go on and on pretending there isn’t a growth imperative built into the design of our mono-currency economy.
It is like saying I would like this rose to be white and scented but in fact it is red and unscented. The redness and unscented is built into its DNA and no amount of nice new language or great new writing will alter it. We just can’t go on creating more and more names for a good economy.
I am sure economists like Kate Raworth are contributing to raising awareness but honestly, give or take a few years of dormancy, people in the advanced economies have been at it since the 1970s. The Greens talked about it for a few years but dropped it like a hot cake quite a while ago.
Now I don’t expect too much new thinking will come out of universities. It is tricky for a university economist to breach the parameters of what they can say without losing their salary. Professor Steve Keen is having to crowdfund his salary now.
It is now time to acknowledge that we need to leave the new system alone and invent an entirely new model. We can’t solve climate change within the current model. Within the old system you can’t put on a hefty carbon tax and expect a different political result from Australia. (Yes you can plant trees and do other things, sure.)
Supposing therefore we allow:
- There to be more than one currency
- It must be publicly created and controlled for inflation.
- The currency will be spent into existence not lent into existence.
- The currency will be designed to decay (Silvio Gesell’s quote is “Only money that goes out of date like a newspaper, rots like potatoes, rusts like iron and evaporates like ether can be capable of standing the test as an instrument for the exchange of newspapers, potatoes, iron and ether.”)
- The commons must be publicly owned and rent for their monopoly use must replace income tax and sales tax.
I realise that these are all huge jumps in thinking and the last point means there have to be very strong leasehold contracts to protect the occupier of the property together with no rent on land used for conservation or historic purposes.
Naomi Klein has spelt out this challenge for a new economic system in her book This Changes Everything.
Though The Next System Project is grappling with the challenge of finding it in Washington DC it would be great to have a special platform somewhere in NZ to work on it ourselves.
Oh, and by the way, my book The Big Shift – Reinventing Money, Tax, Welfare and Governance for the Next Economic System is available from Living Economies bookshop. It is the result of a four-year think tank of what was the New Economics Party and is the source of the above ideas. We may be right we don’t know, but we tried.
Climate change groups were noticeably absent from the recent public discussion about the rising price of petrol. Nobody was saying publicly that if we are to turn emissions around, we have to make it more expensive to drive. Not the Greens, not Generation Zero or 350.0rg. Nobody. It had been a unanimous outcry of pain against high petrol prices. Why? Surely lower petrol prices would clog up our roads, get people off public transport and adversely impact our emissions?
Here was a discussion about how the margins had increased in Wellington and the South Island yet nobody had said we should drive less so use petrol and reduce our carbon footprint. Nobody came out with a comment that the oil companies have a growing debt burden because it is getting more and more uneconomic to get oil out of the ground, so it is not surprising. They have been binging on debt and are struggling to pay dividends and find new barrels. The big four doubled their net debt between 2014-2016.
The public debate was started by Judith Collins the Minister of Energy and Resources after a report came out, and Labour’s Stuart Nash praised her for ordering the report. Labour’s Stuart Nash praised her for ordering the report.
So how important is petrol to us? The average Kiwi family spends $42.30 a week on petrol – only $8 less than their average weekly spend on meat, fruit and veggies. That is mighty close. It won’t take much for petrol to be a bigger part of the budget than food. And to complicate it, when petrol costs rise food costs mostly get passed on to us.
But then I thought of the implications. The gross profit margin on fuel at the pump had doubled to about 30 cents a litre in Wellington and the South Island over the past four years and gone up by 5c a litre elsewhere. It has something to do with Gull only selling petrol north of Levin, but it is more than that.
The petrol retailers Z Energy, BP, Mobil, Caltex and Gull all defended their positions. Maybe the companies are suffering from their growing debt burden so increasing their margins are the only way to stay solvent.
Ten years ago when many environmentalists were involved with peak oil we would argue that the price of oil will one day be over $100 a barrel. It hasn’t turned out that way because we didn’t factor in debt or falling interest rates. As actuary Gail Tverberg says, the economy was far more complex than the original model assumes. “When interest rates fall, this tends to allow oil prices to rise, and thus allows increased production. This postpones the Peak Oil crisis, but makes the ultimate crisis worse.”
We all remember that the economy slowed right down when the price of oil spiked in 2008. That showed us how critical the price of oil is. High prices on energy products ripple through the economy is many different ways. Just thinking about the price of petrol gives a misleading impression. Tverberg says, “Because interest rates, debt, wages, and oil prices (and, in fact, commodity prices of all kinds) are linked, the system is much more complex than what most early modellers assumed was the case.”
Not all of us can get a handle on the huge complexity of it all and I am no exception. But I know Tverberg believes the price of oil will not rise beyond about $50 a barrel because consumers can’t afford it.
Environmental commentators are faced with several problems. First they are unlikely to have an understanding of the complexity of the peak oil problem and secondly because they know that saying petrol prices should rise (through increased taxes) will be unpopular. The petrol price components vary.
What should happen of course for climate change purposes is for the Government to increase taxes on petrol, diesel etc. The fact that the oil companies have been the villain has excused the government for inaction. Now we can cry together that the oil companies are a greedy, conniving cartel. I am not sure that does much to reverse climate change trends.
Back in 2015 the IMF issued a warning that permanently low fossil fuels are choking off investment in renewable sources of energy and hindering the fight against climate change. A year later after a big study, the World Bank chimed in.
I have now watched a TED talk on this topic twice and can’t help but respond. Ecological economist Marjan Van Den Belt is right when she says “we are mindlessly addicted to economic growth, we are growth junkies.” She advocates reciprocity in economies and says that is the key to a circular, sharing, regenerative economy. So far so good.
She urges listeners to take “a small step in the right direction”. She points out that goal 8 of the UN Sustainable Development Goals is “meaningful jobs and economic growth”. What a shame they the UN doesn’t appear to understand that growth measures both good and the bad and doesn’t distinguish between them. So every time someone gets lung cancer that is good for growth, and when there is an accident the same. But when a mother cares for her preschoolers well or a family member cares for a frail older relative, the GDP doesn’t budge. Family work, voluntary work are not counted.
She also says neoclassical economic theory describes people as homo economicus – rational, self-centred and suggests trying to put that on your profile for a singles site. Yes.
So why do I want to respond? Because we are trapped. We have designed the money system and the land tenure system and together they are leading us by the nose to the growth imperative. And what happens if the economy doesn’t grow? Why it collapses of course. So is this economics professor really suggesting we crash the money system by allowing economic growth to grind to a halt? Does she really want us to have no money in the system, to have ATM machines that don’t work, to have plummeting house prices with negative equity and all the ensuing misery of foreclosures and bankruptcies? I doubt it.
Yes she wants a new paradigm and quotes Buckminster Fuller’s exhortation to build a new model. Good.
That is exactly what I have done in my new book The Big Shift. Although there may be other possible ways to get there, together in our little new economics think tank we designed this new model and believe once it is built and once it flourishes it will provide not only appropriate jobs, but where jobs are not possible, it will give a basic income so that parenting, inventing, producing needed sustainable energy and products will also flourish.
You see we need to get back to community owned land and community created and designed money systems. I know it is a huge leap for our thinking to get to community owned land and we can only do this fairly by adequately compensating landowners for their land. We can only do this by creating new money because there isn’t enough in the system of the conventional debt-based money created by banks.
Today I had a lovely email from a Green Party activist who said, “I have spent the weekend reading your book, couldn’t put it down. All amazing and well outlined ways to change our world small sections at a time. However, are there enough of us who are willing to take that last step?” And she wanted to buy a second copy to lend out to friends. Nice.
And she wanted to buy a second copy to lend out to friends. Nice.
For those wanting to read more about how neoclassical economics started and why, I suggest reading The Corruption of Economics by Mason Gaffney and Fred Harrison. It outlines how neoclassical economics started as a reaction to the influence of Henry George. Land barons, industrialists and bankers paid scholars to corrupt the discipline. After two decades they had succeeded in getting any mention of land, banks, money or credit in the mainstream texts. They had subsumed land under capital so successfully that even forward thinking economists like Gareth Morgan fail to mention land as a separate factor of production. Moreoever he also fails to mention money creation.
This emphasis on pointing out the fallacies of measuring the economy as the growth in GDP has gone on since the 1970s so it is great that more know about it But they don’t know what causes the growth imperative, which, as Steve Keen has pointed out, is the combination of the tax system that fails to address rises in land value (and other assets) and the faulty money system.
On approaching the High Court yesterday I was first struck by the sign outside that said “System Change not Climate Change” held up by a pressure group. Why didn’t I call my book this? It’s a damn good slogan. Crowds soon gathered and the media arrived to interview Sarah Thomson, the law student taking the case on climate targets.
When a 24 year old takes the Government to court it has got to be newsworthy and important. When her lawyer Davie Salmon started up, the years of preparation showed and a very long friendly conversation between Salmon and the judge began. Huge piles of documents were behind the young woman judge and I couldn’t help thinking this judge has the power to rule that the government revisit its emission targets and she looks five foot nothing. We have to stand up when she leaves the court.
The argument that New Zealand is small therefore we don’t need to do much was thoroughly demolished, especially with Salmon’s suggestion that if the boat is sinking everybody bails, no matter how small their bucket.
He took us through the difference between the target of 1.5 degrees vs 2 degrees of warming. Reality strikes when you realise that, although he said he wouldn’t exaggerate, he used the word ‘catastrophic’. Yes beyond two degrees it is catastrophic and James Renwick had reminded us outside that it is only five years till we get to 1.5 degrees. David Salmon persuasively argued that you shouldn’t rely on technologies that don’t exist yet to take carbon dioxide from the atmosphere. He said it was like telling someone to keep smoking in the hope someone would invent a cure for lung cancer. One cannot predict inventions. Therefore no real weight can be put on that hope.
He impressed on the judge the comprehensiveness of the AR5 summary of climate change knowledge worldwide. The sheer size and scale of the work was noted and the fact that it is always out of date before it is published. He said, “I don’t want to make you read it all Your Honour, is scary reading about floods and famines, mass migrations and conflicts and some of it is dry and detailed”. She replied, “I’ll be happy to read it”. He said,”Maybe not happy by the time you finish.”
Sarah and her boyfriend were sitting in front of me in the gallery. Occasionally she would lay her head on his shoulder. When later she put her arm around him I wondered if that couple would ever have children and what sort of world will it be for them. Will their mothers grieve for the grandchildren they wish they had? But I do know they should be immensely proud of their children and of themselves for bringing them up to have such a huge sense of responsibility.
My thoughts, as always, went to economics. Where were the economists in this court? I couldn’t see a soul. What would they say if they were here? Yes, Salmon talked about Business-as-Usual scenario and I thought that even Helen Clark’s government did nothing to stop the intensification of dairy because it feared the economy wouldn’t grow enough and they would be out of government. And so we get agricultural emissions rising.
And Naomi Klein realised the economy was at war with the climate.
So I thought what would it really take to change the economic system from growth dependent to a healthy one? How many really want to face up to the money system and that the land tenure system (and therefore the tax system) simply have to change. It’s a big shift for people’s mindsets. What causes the growth imperative? It is the combination of privately owned land system with an interest-bearing debt money system controlled by private banks. A match made in hell. Maybe we have to get to hell before we wake up.
We have the choice of catastrophic climate change or economic collapse. Both are horrible. Please, someone, focus on changing the political economy before it is too damn late!!
I kicked myself that I hadn’t written a flyer for my book and taken it with me.
If you want to design a political economy that works, you actually have to go to the roots. That means the money system the tax system, the welfare system and the governance system. So I was shocked to read the six winning essays in The Next System’s essay competition to discover that so few of them had addressed the money system or the tax system.
It is like an engineering professor setting out to teach students without having a course on materials. “OK just let’s assume everything is built out of this one material. I have no idea what it is but it is just a given. I have no idea of its properties, but honestly I don’t want to waste my time thinking about them. They are just here and it is what we have to work with. In fact if I have a mental block when talking about materials. I have an excuse.”
Yes that is how stupid it is trying to design a new political economy without thinking about money, the very exchange we use for trading between us.
Or it is like a dressmaker always having the same material available and not being in control over whether it stretches, breathes or shrinks. Dumb dressmaker always assumes that the same material in the same colour is the only one we have available.
Yet the design of money can determine our attitudes to scarcity or abundance and our attitudes to spending or hoarding. And when you realise that the money designer is also the one who decides how much will be created it is doubly worrying. What if the creator of credit pushes out a whole lot of credit at one time and then just slows up for a while? Yet this is exactly what the private banks do because then they make the most profit.
What if the creator of money also designs new instruments for gambling in that money? And they can also steer your investments in certain directions because they are investment advisers and stand to gain if you use certain funds? Yet this is what happens.
And how few of them have addressed the tax system. That is like saying to us, “Well we have got a tax system and honestly I can’t do anything about that. It just is. Well I do know you have to tax the rich more and I assume that means you will put up their income tax.”
Yes it is about as stupid as that. Thomas Piketty warned us to look at the tax system and said how critical it was. I have a quote from him in my book.
The winning essay in the open section mentions money once and tax once.
Today I found a photo from the launch of my book Healthy Money Healthy Planet –Developing Sustainability through New Money Systems and I post it here. It was a good book, took a long time to write and Helen has sold a great many through Living Economies shop.
Yesterday I had an email from a city councillor in a small city which started off by saying, “I read your book, Healthy Money, Healthy Planet, September 2006. I think it is one of the best books I have ever read on the money system.”
This newest book is smaller but just as important. It recognises that money isn’t the only issue in the commons. Land is critical and so we have to look at the tax system which at the moment gives rewards to those who speculate on land. And who owns the earth? Is it individuals? The Donald Trumps of the world? Na. What about the minerals of the earth? Who owns the gold in the ground? Who owns the water, the forests, the fish?
So what is the commons? It is not common land. Wikipedia says, “The commons is the cultural and natural resources accessible to all members of a society, including natural materials such as air, water, and a habitable earth. These resources are held in common, not owned privately.”
But it also includes money. As David Bollier said: “We need to democratize money. Commoners must re-capture the money-creation system for public purposes and replace debt–based money.” I think he should have said “bank-created money” For if you allow private banks to create and control the public money, you lose democratic control. In his excellent article he expands on this here.
My essay, based on this latest book, was entered into the Next System project’s essay competition. It didn’t win. So I skimmed through the six that got first or second place in their section, as did a colleague who understands both money and land issues. It seemed the essays didn’t address the money system or the tax system. I may have skimmed too fast. He quoted me a saying,
“There are a thousand hacking at the branches of evil to one who is striking at the root.”
–Henry David Thoreau, Concord, MA (1817 – 1862)
Helen told me she only has 7 copies left out of 42 so that means there have been quite a few sales.
I also have a date for a meeting with Otaki Transition Towns at the end of June so that is great. I would love to arrange others and fit them in with my local work on climate change issues in waste management. I need to keep in touch with local environmental, governmental and economic issues. We also have a timebank meeting at my place on Wednesday night. I can see how it can fit in as a perfect way for the council to save money.
Phil also did an interview with me in Lyttelton about the book and I hope we can get it up on the website under Resources.
Well the Expo was a huge success. Three days of intense engagement of 120 people on the topic of seeding change can only produce miracles when the person in charge is the wonderful Margaret Jefferies.
You can’t say she wasn’t challenged. Everything went wrong for her for a start. There were going to be two women working with her. One was required by immigration to get a full time job in addition to her two small businesses, the other got sick. Then the programme committee collapsed, well – more of less. Only Deirdre and Bruce seemed to be there at the end, though many others had contributed to a huge list of possible speakers. The list was unmanageable. Too big and no one seemed to follow up. Then there were Jo and Bryan, organisers of ecoshows. They came in.
Margaret just went where the energy went. No one could afford too much time, but Babs Lake came in for three weeks at the end and then there were the wonderful Lyttelton organisers. The programme details were held together by Bruce Anderson who acted as Chair for much of it, together with the brilliant Jo Pearsall.
Audio visuals were under the very competent John Veitch, all helped by skilled volunteers who attended. Peter ex TV3 has done a video of the whole event and the DVDs will eventually be sold from the Living Economies website.
Anyway we ended up with two Australian speakers in person Gary Flohmenhoft, who gave a brilliant talk on land and money, and Darryl Taylor from Melbourne whose language was so wonderfully rich and insights into community development so penetrating.
Gar Alperovitz kicked us off with a great talk on the Next System, coming in by skype from Washington DC.
The final talk by Nafeez Ahmed was a highlight for me, though it started late and went on to interrupt the next workshops. Crisis managed well by Margaret Jefferies and everyone got to where they wanted. Ahmed’s session was hosted by Invercargill engineer in transition, Nathan Surendran, of whom we will see a lot more in the future.
Why was it a highlight? Because Nafeez integrates energy, economy and environment into his world view, because he sees the decline of net global energy and its effects on the economy that depends on growing energy. But he also sees climate change and understands geopolitics to a degree that few economist do. Being an expert in security issues makes him the ideal person to contemplate the convergence of many global crises, illustrating it with the Syrian situation. But just as important was that he had figured out that Trump and Brexit were the result of misdiagnosis of the economic problems of stagnating wages and precarious jobs. The acceleration of everything during 2016 was almost more than the brain is designed to cope with. He advised not worrying about things you can’t control like freak climate events and financial crashes, but focussing on seeding new changes towards the new system. I recorded his talk on my phone, have played it again and look forward to the powerpoint and the DVD.
My session ran fairly smoothly and I have been thinking ever since about the definition of inflation and have been penning a few paragraphs on this. I was glad I practised it so often so I didn’t go overtime. It is tricky to get a book into 35 minutes! My book is duly launched.
Those involved in Savings Pools and Timebanks had plenty of opportunity to meet and connect. Thamina Ashraf an Islamist PhD student spoke, though I had to miss her talk to hear Gary F. Matthew Slater ran The Trading Floor Game involving nearly 100 participants, an exciting experience to view at the end.
A popular guest was Stephanie Rearick from Madison Wisconsin. Timebanks are useful within a wider needs based program called Mutual Aid Networks, and I look forward to hearing her again in Wellington on the 10th.
One workshop I attended was on alternative retirement villages. Ruth Gherzon of Whakatane is doing good research and this will go out on the mailout from the Expo to all participants so that enthusiastic attendees can continue to work on it.
Jo Pearsall and I are keen to see the development of new land trust models in this country, much to the delight of Gary Flohmenhoft.
A timebank gathering is planned for September 2018 in Whakatane and it is hoped this may extend to a whole Living Economies hui. Meanwhile the movement has grown a stronger voice and a wider and wiser presence to form the next system.
The full programme, which had to be adapted because of plane delays due to fog, is here